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by Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon


Herbs with a strong fragrance often have a remarkably powerful effect on the body. The word fragrance (Chinese: xiang) conveys the sense that something is reaching out to you. Herbs that are strongly fragrant are frequently described as such by their common Chinese names: murraya is known as jiulixiang (fragrance that reaches 9 li-about three miles); cyperus is known as xiangfuzi (fragrant tuber); saussurea is known as muxiang (fragrant wood); aquilaria is known as chenxiang (fragrant dense herb); elsholtzia is known as xiangru (fragrant soft herb). In fact, several dozen Chinese medicinal materials, many of them imported for centuries from other lands, are designated by the term xiang. In addition to their uses as internal medicines, many are included in incenses used for traditional ceremonies and as fumigants to get rid of insects and to alleviate skin diseases.

When ingested, the aromatic substances contained in the fragrant herbs dissolve mucus (mucolytic; they cause the mucus to flow more freely), open up congested and contracted blood vessels (reducing atheromas and vasodilating), and regulate the flow of qi (alleviate qi stagnation, and, with that, disperse accumulated fluids).

If the essential oils or isolated constituents are applied topically, they can have an irritating effect; up to a point, this is desired: the therapeutic action is called counter-irritation (it promotes local circulation and alleviates pain) and is the basis for many Chinese liniments used for treating arthralgia and other pain syndromes. The aromatics are disruptive to the membranes of micro-organisms, placing them among the most potent of the topical antibacterial agents.

Aromatics are generally said to have a spicy, pungent, or acrid taste, and this refers to a hot sensation experienced when the aromatic agents come in contact with the tongue. Peppermint, with its main component menthol, is one of the best known aromatics; the spicy taste is familiar to almost everyone. The aromatic herbs often have a medicinal potency related to the strength of the taste and fragrance, as these sensory effects are directly related to the total content of the aromatic constituents.

Early in the history of Chinese medicine, the aromatic agents were investigated and considered of importance not only in treating diseases, but also for prolonging life and maintaining youthful vigor. Likewise, aromatic agents were important in Egyptian, Byzantine, and Indian medicine.

A major study of the herbal constituents in China began during the Tang Dynasty and continued through the Song Dynasty (revived again towards the end of the Qing Dynasty and continued to the present). As described by Edward Schafer in the book Food in Chinese Culture (edited by K.C. Chang, 1977 Yale University Press, New Haven):

The pharmacologists of Tang studied all potential foodstuffs hoping to ascertain their virtues and the complex effects they had on the human body, especially in conjunction with, or in reaction against, other edibles. They were particularly concerned with the prolongation of youth, the lengthening of life, the blackening of hair (prevention of premature graying), the restoration of waning sexual powers, and other such blessings. Pungent and spicy materials seemed especially likely to have these desirable properties in more concentrated form than did ordinary materials....The recommendations of learned pharmacologists must have had an immense effect on the practices of cooks, whose recipes thus modified came in time to be regarded as the authoritative designs for gourmet dishes. Venison with ginger and vinegar was first recommended for its tonic properties but was ultimately appreciated as an ambrosial delight....

These influences are easily seen today in relation to the aromatic agents with such famous dishes as Camphor Wood and Tea Smoked Duck.


One can generalize the descriptions found in Chinese materia medica books to say that the aromatics are used to remove congestion and normalize the flow of qi and blood. Congestion, a stagnation of circulation accompanied by accumulation of the non-circulating substances, has become a major health problem in the modern world. This is partly a result of more sedentary life style, richer diets, and confined living that arises from population growth and industrialization. Diseases related to congestion and abnormal circulation of qi and blood are exemplified by atherosclerosis (a major source of heart attack and stroke), cancer (from the traditional Chinese perspective, an accumulation in the form of tumor growth), digestive disorders (including ulcer, constipation, and flatulence), persistent sinus and/or lung congestion, and autoimmune diseases characterized by accumulations of antibodies (such as rheumatoid arthritis). These conditions are readily recognized as among the most widespread in the modern world.

Although numerous plant materials used in Chinese medicine have a strong fragrance, the ones usually considered to be "aromatics" are mainly those that appear in five of the standard materia medica categories (based on fundamental therapeutic actions; see: Enumerating the methods of therapy):

Fragrant Herbs for Dissolving Wetness: examples include alpinia, cardamon, red atractylodes, kaemferia, magnolia bark, pogostemon.

Herbs for Regulating Qi: examples include acronychia, aquilaria, citrus, cyperus, lindera, sandalwood, saussurea.

Herbs for Warming the Interior and Eliminating Cold: examples include galanga, clove, cinnamon bark, evodia, fennel, zanthoxylum.

Fragrant Herbs for Opening the Orifices: examples include benzoin, borneol, styrax.

Herbs for Warming and Releasing the Surface: examples include elsholtzia, chiang-huo, perilla leaf, schizonepeta, thyme.

Some of the fragrant herbs are found in other categories, such as myrrh and frankincense among the blood-vitalizing herbs, and nutmeg in the category of astringents.

In Ayurvedic and Tibetan medicines, the aromatics also play a primary role. Some of the Chinese herbs mentioned above were originally obtained from Tibet and India and even from the Middle East.


Although one can successfully study Chinese herbs from a theoretical and clinical viewpoint without examining active constituents, in the case of aromatic herbs, the study of these constituents proves useful. This is because there is a class of chemical components that are common to many of the aromatic agents.

Of the large number of aromatic constituents found in Chinese herbs, the volatile components in cardamon (sharen and doukou) are among the most important and widely occurring. These aromatic constituents belong to a large class of chemicals known as terpenoids, subdivided by chemists into monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, and sesquiterpenoids. Terpenoids are relatively simple hydrocarbons (made up of only hydrogen and carbon), sometimes with a single oxygen molecule attached. Hydrocarbons are lipophyllic, meaning that they are not soluble in water and that in the body they tend to migrate to the fatty tissues and cell membranes. Good examples of the simple monoterpenes are limonene and pinene, and of oxygenated monoterpenes are menthol and borneol. When making an herbal tea, these compounds are not solubilized in water but rather forced out of the herb by the heat. They quickly rise to the surface layer and then evaporate. For that reason, aromatic herbs are often only steeped in the tea after decoction or only decocted for a few minutes (or not decocted at all, but given in pills).

Cardamon is included in numerous traditional and modern prescriptions for relief of congested qi, moisture, and blood. Cardamon (see Figure 1 for spectrographic constituent analysis of the volatile oil from Aromatic Plants and Essential Constituents, by South China Institute of Botany, 1993) contains the following terpenoids:

camphor camphene terpinene myrcene
bornyl acetate linalool caryophyllene nerolidol
borneol pinene limonene

There are numerous species of cardamon used in Chinese medicine. These include baidoukou (cluster, Amomum cardamomum or Amomum kravanh), originally produced in the countries now known as Thailand and Vietnam; caoguo (Tsao-kou; Amomum tsao-ko); and sharen, also known as suosha (cardamon; from Amomum villosum, Amomum xanthioides, and other species). Cardamon and cluster are the ones most commonly used in making Chinese herbal prescriptions, and they have similar ingredients, with borneol and bornyl acetate being the principal substance in their volatile oils. The specific amounts and range of active constituents vary among the cardamons, but the uses of the herbs in medicine are similar. For purposes of this article, I use the term "cardamon" to refer to Amomum villosum, the primary source for sharen.

Borneol and the compound that usually accompanies it in herbs, bornyl acetate, is a powerful agent for regulating qi and alleviating pain. However, more is known, historically, about the therapeutically similar camphor oil than about borneol, the latter called Borneo camphor. Borneol is a major component of camphor oil.

Camphor oil is obtained from a tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and like cardamon, the essential oil of the tree contains a large number of terpenoids (mostly, the same ones as in cardamon, but in different proportions). Camphor was collected at least as early as the 9th Century. In 1676, the trees were brought to Europe for cultivation. In the following century, it was also introduced to several other countries, including the U.S.

Prior to World War II, the world use of camphor was about 5,000 tons per year; 80% of this came from Taiwan (the Taiwan camphor tree yields 44% camphor from its leaves, a particularly high level). During the U.S. Civil War, the demand for camphor (used primarily as a medicinal) was so high that the U.S. contracted for the entire Taiwan supply. It was even proposed that an effort be made to purchase Taiwan (then called Formosa) in order to monopolize the camphor trade. It is perhaps for this reason that Japan acquired Formosa in 1895. Camphor oil was a popular medicinal in the U.S. until about twenty years ago when several instances occurred in which children were fed camphor oil by parents who failed to distinguish it from castor oil. The pure camphor oil is toxic in the doses for which castor oil is used. Also, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration worried that topically applied camphor oil would penetrate the skin in sufficient amounts that it could cause trouble for persons with cardiac disorders who were taking various medications. As a result, it is no longer possible to purchase camphor oil for household use in the U.S.

Like borneol, camphor has been used as an antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cardiac stimulant, respiratory aid, and anthelmintic. It is often used in treating congestive problems such as bronchitis and emphysema. Camphor is also used in preparation of foods, being an ingredient of vanilla and peppermint flavors, and incorporated into formulations of soft drinks, baked goods, and condiments. In modern Chinese medicine, camphor is most often reserved for external application, while borneol is used both internally and externally. Synthetic camphor, often made from by chemically modifying pine tree resins (turpentine), is now widely used as a substitute for the natural product.

The Chinese traditionally obtained their borneol (as an isolate) mainly from Dryobalanops aromatica and from Blumea balsamifera. The latter is used as the herb ainaxiang (fragrant herb that looks like artemisia), which is rich in borneol and also contains limonene, camphor, and other terpenoid compounds. The extracted borneol (longnaoxiang; fragrant dragon's brain; also known as bingpian [ice slice] referring to the appearance of the finished product) is considered to be suitable for abdominal and chest pains, intestinal parasites, phlegm congestion, and fevers. Blumea is in the same plant family (Labiatae) as capillaris, chrysanthemum, and saussurea, which also contain important terpenes.

Borneol and bornyl acetate are ingredients in the following herbal materials:

cardamon magnolia
nutmeg turmeric
ginger liquidambar
lindera camphor oil

These herbs are all used in the treatment of pain syndromes. Camphor oil is sometimes used internally for pain due to blood stasis. All have a warming quality. Many of these herbs, notably nutmeg, ginger, cardamon, turmeric, and camphor oil, are traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Tibetan medicines for the treatment of pain syndromes; these same herbs are recognized as common ingredients in the preparation of foods.

The aromatic agent pinene, best known as the principle ingredient of pine oil (turpentine), is found in:

cardamon frankincense citrus
magnolia cyperus perilla
myrrh cinnamon lindera
pogostemon piper camphor oil

These herbs are all deemed warming. Citrus, cyperus, lindera, and perilla leaf are classified as qi regulating herbs used in the treatment of digestive disorders, pain, and moisture and phlegm congestion. They are often combined together in the treatment of emotional disturbance, abdominal bloating, and asthmatic breathing. Cinnamon, lindera, and piper are used for dispelling cold that causes abdominal pain. Pogostemon (huoxiang) is an herb that replaced agastache; pogostemon is the source of the natural fragrance known as patchouli oil.

Camphor and the chemically related compound camphene are found in:

cardamon ginger nutmeg
saussurea curcuma cyperus
magnolia cinnamon camphor oil

As with the previous listings, these herbs are warming and regulate circulation of qi and moisture.

Myrcene is found in:




These three herbs are commonly used to treat gallbladder stagnation, including gallstones and aching in the area of the gallbladder.

Limonene and the chemically similar phellandrene are found in many fragrant herbs:







camphor oil











pine resin




Linalool is a terpene alcohol found in:

pogostemon lindera
citrus magnolia
ginger nutmeg

The chemical constituents mentioned for the above herb lists are all monoterpenes. Nerolidol, copaene, and farnesene, sesquiterpenoids, are found in:


camphor oil




They are all useful in treating central stagnation of qi and dampness and relieving abdominal pain. Other sesquiterpenoid compounds are found in the following herbs:

acorus myrrh
aquilaria sandalwood
cardamon piper
cyperus pogostemon
lindera saussurea

These lists of herbs containing specified terpenoids (in this case, the same ingredients as found in cardamon) illustrate three points: some herbs contain numerous terpenoids as active constituents (examples are cardamon, magnolia, citrus, cyperus, piper, camphor, ginger, frankincense, myrrh); the herbs that contain terpenoids have similar actions from the traditional viewpoint (mainly regulating circulation of qi, moisture, and blood, and usually dispelling chill); the studies of active constituents, modern pharmacology, and traditional therapeutics can, at least in the case of these herbs, be joined together in providing a deeper understanding of herbal healing.


Pharmacologically, the terpenoid compounds have the following effects (with examples of herbs used for those effects):

  1. Stimulate blood circulation: frankincense, myrrh, turmeric, curcuma, and liquidambar.
  2. Permeate congestion: piper, citrus, saussurea, magnolia, cardamon, borneol, and camphor.
  3. Relieve pain: most of these herbs have this property; cardamon, aquilaria, saussurea, myrrh, and frankincense.
  4. Relieve inflammation: borneol, camphor, saussurea, and aquilaria.
  5. Improve digestion: ginger, sandalwood, clove, galanga, cyperus, magnolia, saussurea, and agastache.
  6. Enhance mental function: saussurea and acorus.
  7. Prevent and aid resolution of tumors: saussurea, clove, cardamon, myrrh, frankincense, and borneol.
  8. Dispel intestinal parasites and infecting organisms: saussurea, clove, zanthoxylum, capillaris, and magnolia.

There are some aromatic medicinal agents that do not contain terpenoids but have some similar effects, such as styrax (liquid extract), musk, ox gallstone, and benzoin: these are classified as aromatic agents for opening the orifices.


Most prescriptions for atherosclerosis, angina pectoris, stroke, injuries, intestinal parasites, children's congestive disorders, and impaired circulation contain aromatic agents. Because the aromatic components are quite strong in their pharmacologic action, and because they are easily evaporated or damaged by cooking, the majority of prescriptions are made up as pills comprised of the powdered crude herbs or, in the cases of myrrh, frankincense, camphor, borneol, and benzoin, as crude resins. In the formula names that include the names of one or two key herbs (OHAI common names system), the term "Formula" usually indicates a pill or a powder (swallowed whole or made into a tea with minimal cooking time); the term "Combination" designates a decoction. In the case of patent medicines, the terms wan and dan mean pills.

Aromatic agents are usually quite versatile in their applications, but I have grouped the following prescriptions very roughly into categories for easier study. These formulas are derived from Chinese, Tibetan, and Ayurvedic prescriptions.


  1. Saussurea and Mastic Formula (1), contains saussurea, borneol, cardamon, aquilaria, clove, sandalwood, frankincense, cinnamon, piper, musk, terminalia, licorice, platycodon, and cinnabar. It is used for angina pectoris, ulcer, and other abdominal and chest pains.
  2. Guan Xin Su Ho Wan (2), comprised of sandalwood, borneol, myrrh, styrax resin, and aristolachia root, is used for chronic heart disease, especially atherosclerosis. It is reported to have good results in treating angina and myocardial infarction in clinical studies in China. This prescription, with its very large doses of borneol (15%) and styrax (8%) is bordering on the action of a drug rather than a food supplement, and so should be taken with the advice of a practitioner.
  3. Su He Xiang Wan (2) is a patent medicine comprised of borneol, styrax resin, musk, aquilaria, frankincense, piper, benzoin, saussurea, cyperus, sandalwood, clove, terminallia, aristolachia fruit, rhino horn, and cinnabar. The formula is used for atherosclerosis and apoplexy. This ancient prescription is called Styrax Formula by Dr. Hsu (3); it was recorded in the He Ji Ju Fang of the Song Dynasty. The formula is effective in treating angina, coma, stuttering, and limb pains. Because it contains rhino horn and cinnabar, it is not appropriate for use in the West.
  4. Padma 28, comprised of the aromatics cardamon, clove, camphor, saussurea, cluster, chih-shih, and sandalwood, plus other plants (most of which are non-aromatic agents), such as terminallia, melia, and licorice, is a Tibetan remedy manufactured in Switzerland that is used for the treatment of angina, atherosclerosis, and peripheral arterial occlusion. There have been more clinical studies of this herbal prescription in the West than any other Tibetan formula. It maintains a 70% efficacy rate for most disorders for which it is indicated.
  5. Aquilaria 8 (4), comprised of aquilaria, nutmeg, frankincense (from Sal tree), saussurea, terminallia, spondias, bamboo sap, and ironwood, is used for angina and tachicardia, myocardial insufficiency, and pulmonary arterial occlusion. It is also indicated for the treatment of pains in the breast or liver. This is a traditional Tibetan remedy made entirely of herbal ingredients (the majority of Tibetan remedies include animal substances and minerals). It is available in India but difficult to obtain in the West.
  6. Cinnamon and Cardamon Combination (1) contains cinnamon, aurantium, cardamon, aquilaria, magnolia bark, saussurea, ginger, plus perilla fruit and licorice. Perilla fruit also contains terpenoid compounds; it is usually used in the treatment of allergy, especially in persons with weak constitution. This prescription is used for chest pain and asthma.
  7. Aquilaria and Hoelen Combination (1) contains aquilaria, cardamon, aurantium, evodia, coptis, licorice, and hoelen. It is used for stomach and chest pain.
  8. Chih-shih and Cardamon Combination (3) contains cardamon, magnolia bark, ginger, citrus, saussurea, Chih-shih, cyperus, fennel, tsao-tou-kou, pinellia, hoelen, corydalis, and licorice. This ancient prescription was first recorded in Wan Bing Hui Jun of the Ming Dynasty. It is used for stomach ache, gastric ulcer, angina pectoris, and back pain.
  9. Bi-ma-mi-tra Pills (4) contain nutmeg, frankincense, clove, cardamon, sandalwood, and 14 other ingredients, including terminallia, melia, and licorice. It is indicated for heart disease, heart pain, mental disturbances, aches and pains, nervousness, and fainting. The formula is currently not available in the West.


  1. Da Huo Luo Dan (2), a patent medicine from China, comprised of lindera, aquilaria, saussurea, clove, cinnamon, frankincense, oxstone, blue citrus, musk, myrrh, benzoin, cluster, cyperus, pine resin, borneol, and about two dozen other ingredients (mostly non-aromatic agents), is used as a general treatment for pain syndromes. It is especially good for pain in the limbs. As it is produced by several different factories, the formula will vary slightly depending upon its source. The gold-leaf coated pills are relatively expensive, but are one of the strongest of the pain relieving formulas for arthritic problems. The product label lists rhino horn and tiger bone, but the product does not contain these ingredients. This formula, called Clematis and Gastrodia Combination by Dr. Hsu, is described in OHAI Bulletin #16 along with other therapies for arthritis, rheumatism, neuralgia, and apoplexy.
  2. Musk and Catechu Formula (3), comprised of musk, myrrh, borneol, frankincense, catechu, calamus gum, cinnabar, and carthamus is used for severe pain, especially that caused by traumatic injury. This is a famous traditional remedy known as Qi Li San.
  3. Musk-Tigerbone Pills (2), a patent medicine from China, is used for pains in the bones, muscles, and joints, paralysis, and muscle spasms. It contains agastache, oxstone, cyperus, cardamon, myrrh, blue citrus, pine resin, lindera, aquilaria, frankincense, benzoin, borneol, musk, and plus 45 other ingredients. Although the formulation is overly complex, the 10% aromatic components (50% of the pill is honey) are quite effective. The product lists rhino horn and tiger bone, but does not contain these ingredients.
  4. Zai Zao Wan (2), a patent medicine for treating injuries, contains musk, oxstone, cardamon, myrrh, aquilaria, frankincense, agastache, plus numerous other ingredients, many of them are aromatics. This product lists rhino horn and tiger bone on its label, but does not contain them.


  1. Shu Gan Wan (2) is a patent formula from China that contains cyperus, chih-shih, citrus, aurantium, curcuma, magnolia bark, cardamon, aquilaria, sandalwood, and nine other ingredients. The product is made at several factories and the composition may vary depending on the source. It is used for abdominal pains and digestive disturbances.
  2. Saussurea and Cardamon Formula (1), contains saussurea, cloves, sandalwood, cardamon, cluster, agastache, ginger, licorice, and salt. This prescription should not be confused with the similarly named Saussurea and Cardamon Combination (3). The formula treats digestive disturbance, diarrhea, constipation, and stomach ache.
  3. Cyperus, Cardamon, and Atractylodes Formula (1) contains ginger, cyperus, magnolia bark, agastache, citrus, cardamon, jujube, atractylodes, and licorice. It is used for digestive disturbances in persons with weak constitution.
  4. Atractylodes and Cardamon Combination (3) contains citrus, magnolia bark, saussurea, cardamon, aquilaria, licorice, tang-kuei, atractylodes, morus, perilla fruit, hoelen, and ginseng. It treats weak digestion with production of excessive sputum and wheezing.
  5. Pueraria Flower Combination (3) contains saussurea, blue citrus peel, citrus, ginger, cardamon, cluster, hoelen, alisma, pueraria flower, ginseng, polyporus, atractylodes, and shen-chu. It is indicated for nausea, vomiting, and hangover.
  6. Drachsha contains cardamon (green and black), cinnamon, clove, fennel, ginger, nutmeg, piper (two types), turmeric, coriander, cumin, mace, oregano, and saffron. All the herbs in this formula, except for saffron, are classified as aromatics. This is an Ayurvedic remedy based on a traditional formula; it is used to improve digestion. The preparation, in the form of liquid extract, has been sold in the U.S. for more than a decade.
  7. Minor Bupleurum Combination Modified (1) contains citrus, saussurea, cardamon, agastache, aquilaria, ginger, fennel, licorice, kaki, mume, scute, gardenia, and pinellia. It is used for stomach distress and subcostal pains.
  8. Hingwasthaka contains asafoetida, ginger, two types of piper, three types of cumin, and rock salt. This spicy and aromatic blend is a well-known Ayurvedic remedy for digestive disturbances, especially to be used in cases where phlegm congestion arises as the result of weak digestive activity. It is added as a powder to cooked food, or taken as a pill.


  1. Saussurea and Lindera Combination (5) contains saussurea, chih-ko, frankincense, myrrh, curcuma, citrus, cardamon, lindera, hoelen, and peony. It is used in the treatment of tumors.
  2. Clove and Cardamon Formula (5) contains cardamon, clove, cyperus, saussurea, cluster, licorice, ginseng, malt, and atractylodes. It is used in the treatment of stomach tumors.
  3. Clove and Hoelen Combination (3) contains citrus, clove, ginger, cinnamon, cardamon, hoelen, pinellia, and aconite. It is used for stomach cancer and gastric ulcers.
  4. Scirpus Combination (5) contains blue citrus peel, citrus, chih-shih, cyperus, magnolia bark, saussurea, ginger, plus 12 other herbs. It is used for treating abdominal masses.
  5. Inula and Hematite Combination Modified (5) contains citrus, evodia, cyperus, aquilaria, chih-ko, inula, coptis, hematite, pinellia, hoelen, bamboo, peony, and oyster shell. It is used for treating esophageal cancer.


  1. Mume and Zanthoxylum Combination (1) contains chih-shih, cyperus, magnolia bark, saussurea, cardamon, cinnamon, zanthoxylum, ginger, licorice, melia, areca seed, and mume. It is used for treating digestive disturbance, intestinal pains, and intestinal parasites.
  2. Tang-kuei and Saussurea Combination (1) contains saussurea, cardamon, black cardamon, ginger, cyperus, fennel, lindera, evodia, licorice, atractylodes, juncus, tang-kuei, corydalis, and gardenia. It is used for uterine pain and intestinal pain.
  3. Areca Seed Combination (3) contains aurantium, ginger, evodia, magnolia bark, perilla, saussurea, cinnamon, hoelen, areca seed, licorice, and rhubarb. It is indicated for constipation, abdominal fullness, swelling in the legs, chest pain, tension in the legs and arms, and emotional disorders.


  1. Otsuka Keisetsu, et al., Natural Healing with Chinese Herbs, 1982 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
  2. Fratkin J, Chinese Herbal Patent Formulas, 1986 Shya Publications, Santa Fe, NM.
  3. Hsu HY and Hsu CS, Commonly Used Chinese Herb Formulas with Illustrations, 1980 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
  4. Rechung Rinpoche, Tibetan Medicine, 1973 University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
  5. Hsu HY, Treating Cancer with Chinese Herbs, 1990 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.

APPENDIX 1: Botanical Sources of Terpenoids

Terpenoids are found in a very wide range of plant species. They are predominantly found in seven plant families:

Pinaceae: pine resin, biota, and juniper are the principle herbs used as aromatics in this family.

Umbelliferae: fennel, anise, and coriander are aromatics from this family.

Lauraceae: camphor, cinnamon, lindera, and benzoin (a derivative of another species of Lindera) are the main aromatics of this family.

Rutaceae: citrus, blue citrus, chih-shih, and zanthoxylum are aromatic agents from this family.

Labiatae: agastache, perilla, pogostemon, and prunella are examples.

Compositae: saussurea, capillaris, and blumea are examples.

Zingiberaceae: galanga, cardamon, curcuma, and turmeric are examples.

May 1997