RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF CHINESE MEDICINE
I. Books and Journals
The Institute for Traditional Medicine has established a library of medical texts collected over the past twenty-five years. The library project was inspired by the extensive holdings gathered by Joseph Needham and his colleagues at Cambridge University in England and the collection started by Hong-yen Hsu and his associates at the Oriental Healing Arts Institute in California, each of which is comprised of thousands of titles.
ITM's more modest project includes 400 English language books, of which about 160 focus on Chinese herbal medicine and related medical information and theories, which has been the primary focus of ITM's work. There are also a few Chinese language books that are not mentioned in this document, including several large illustrated guides to medicinal materials. ITM has part or all of a collection of certain journals related to Chinese herbs and acupuncture, of which only three have current subscriptions, plus other journals that contain relevant information.
The following pages detail the English language books in the collection, providing for each the name of the book and its author(s), the publication date, publisher, and principal city for the publisher's distribution. The information is presented in the format that ITM has adopted for referencing books. Oriental names of authors have the family name first, but sometimes they are Westernized, placing the family name last (in such case, it is common, though not always the practice, to hyphenate the two personal names).
To make searching for titles easier, the books have been classified as follows:
The library is not a comprehensive collection of works on these subjects, partly because there are numerous books and journals that may be popular but do not have any scholarly or scientific orientation, and because others have a very limited scope. This listing includes the primary reference texts and journals used in producing the articles generated at ITM.
To assist practitioners of Chinese medicine in collecting their own library, the books have been given a rating in relation to their value for the study of Chinese medicine. This rating is placed either as a heading or as a code following the book information.
Essential Reading/Reference [ER]: Most practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine will find the information in the book of value in improving their background knowledge and capabilities. Only books that have general applications related to the traditional practices are listed as essential; if the book's contents are highly focused on a special subject, the book will usually be classified as advanced reading. Out of Print books are removed from the essential reading section, even if deemed quite valuable.
Recommended Reading/Reference [RR]: The books may cover much the same ground as others that are rated essential reading, but are less comprehensive or not as detailed. Still, these books may provide some additional insights, perspectives, specialty information, or expanded information that make them quite useful. Or, it may cover a subject of peripheral or more limited interest, but do so in an interesting way.
Advanced Reading/Reference [AR]: The book contains information that may be of value for the scholarly pursuit of the field, or for the pursuit of a specialty area within the field. Books that may have been designed for general use by practitioners but which fail to attain their goal and those that may require the judgment of well-educated readers to weed through the interpretations (some of which may be incorrect) or through difficult language may be classified as Advanced Reading.
Not Recommended [NR]: By comparison with other available books, the book does not provide much useful information for the practice of Chinese medicine (or other fields that shed light on that practice), and/or may be poorly written, and/or is too limited in scope or too out of date to be of value to the majority of practitioners. Books that are of particularly poor quality are not included in this reference list.
Out of Print [OP]: The book might only be found in a library, used book store, or by a book search service. The publisher no longer has copies available.
Clearly, there will be substantial differences in opinion about how these books ought to be rated; in fact, it was not always easy to place the books within one of the categories based on the criteria established here. These ratings are largely determined by the perceived ability to obtain information useful for producing the ITM articles about various Chinese medical subjects. Emphasis is placed on such features as: inclusion of quality translation work; comprehensiveness in dealing with the subject at hand; apparent reliability of the information presented; and readability. Sometimes, books containing valuable information may be recommended despite poor readability, and others that have reliable information may be deemed valuable despite lack of comprehensive approach or lack of complete faithfulness of translation. It is possible that a rating will be changed over time; for example, a book that is deemed essential may become out of date (and/or out of print) and may be superseded by another book on the same or similar subject that is better or, at the least, still available.
Generally, books that are well-translated Chinese medical classics and books that are written by Chinese experts with extensive experience will be rated as essential or recommended reading. Books by secondary authors, that is, those who have learned the subject relatively recently and have rushed ahead to write what they know, are generally not recommended.
Health care providers that prescribe Chinese herbs should develop a library that includes most of the essential reading books plus at least one or two of the "recommended reading" books from each category (at least from those that correspond to their scope of practice). A minimum library of about 35-40 such books in these categories would likely provide the resource information that is essential to conduct a successful practice.
The books listed in the following pages that are not out of print may be obtained either directly from the publisher or from one of the many distributors of Oriental medical books, including:
Redwing Book Company: 44 Linden St., Brookline, MA 02146 (general supplier of natural healing books).
Eastwind Books and Arts: 633 Vallejo St., San Francisco, CA 94133 (selected Chinese medical books).
Oriental Healing Arts Institute: 1945 Palo Verde Ave., Long Beach, CA 90815.
Blue Poppy Press: 1775 Linden Ave. Boulder, CO 80304 (mainly their own publications).
Institute for Traditional Medicine: 2017 SE Hawthorne, Portland, OR 97214 (ITM publications plus several books rated here as Essential, Recommended, or Advanced).
The most comprehensive guides to individual herbs with traditional indications and uses described are Thousand Formulas and Thousand Herbs, volume 1(listing 1,000 items); Oriental Materia Medica(765 items); Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica (470 items); and Chinese-English Manual of Common-Used Herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (350 items). All of these present accurate and useful information though only one, Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica, was written by Westerners and is accepted as a teaching text at American colleges of Oriental medicine. All of these guides will prove useful to practitioners, as they have notably differing presentation styles and some differences in content even for individual herbs. Oriental Materia Medicais relied upon extensively for the ITM literature and contains most of the herbs that are important to know, so is listed as an essential reference. Most of the other items in this section of the library present only a relatively small selection of herbs and present more limited information (and are therefore not recommended) or specialized information (and are deemed advanced reading) about the herbs.
Hsu HY, et al., Oriental Materia Medica: A Concise Guide, 1986 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Bensky D and Gamble A, Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, 1993, Eastland Press, Seattle, WA.
Huang Bingshan and Wang Yuxia, Thousand Formulas and Thousand Herbs of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 1, 1993 Heilongjiang Education Press, Harbin. [OP]
Ou Ming (chief editor), Chinese-English Manual of Common-Used Herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1989 Joint Publishing Co., Hong Kong.
Ling Yeouruenn, A New Compendium of Materia Medica, 1995 Science Press, Beijing.
Perry LM, Medicinal Plants of East and Southeast Asia, 1980 MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. [OP]
Pharmacopoeia Commission of PRC, Pharmacopoeia of the PRC, (English edition) 1988 People's Medical Publishing House, Beijing. [OP; 1995 edition is available]
Sionneau P, Pao Zhi: An Introduction to the Use of Processed Chinese Medicinals, 1995 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
Smith FP and Stuart GA, Chinese Medicinal Herbs, 1973 Georgetown Press, San Francisco, CA.
Yen Kunying, Illustrated Chinese Materia Medica, (2 vol.), 1986 Southern Materials Center, Inc., Taipei.
Zhang Enquin (ed. in chief), English-Chinese Rare Chinese Materia Medica, 1990 Publishing House of Shanghai College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai.
Cheung CS and Kaw UA, Synopsis of the Pharmacopeia, 1984 American College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, San Francisco. [OP]
Chin WY and Keng H, Illustrated Dictionary of Chinese Medicinal Herbs, 1992 CRCS Publications, Sebastopol, CA.
Geng Junying, et al., Practical Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology: Medicinal Herbs, 1991 New World Press, Beijing.
Himche Yeung, Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas, vol. 1: Herbs, 1985 Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles, CA.
Hu, SY, An Enumeration of Chinese Materia Medica, 1980 The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong. [OP]
Li Ninghon, et al., Chinese Medicinal Herbs of Hong Kong (5 vol.), 1986 Chinese Medical Research Institute, Hong Kong. [OP]
Liu Changxiao and Xiao Peigen, An Introduction to Chinese Materia Medica, 1993 Beijing Medical University Press, Beijing. [OP]
Pang TY, Chinese Herbal: An Introduction, 1982 Tai Chi School of Philosophy and Art, Honolulu, HI.
Books of formulas can be divided into three broad categories: those with the traditional formulas that are studied in China; the formulas that are used by Kanpo doctors in Japan (and similarly in Taiwan), which are mainly a subset of the former with a few items rarely discussed in China; and the patent formulas which include traditional and modern prescriptions that are manufactured by a large number of commercial enterprises. The principal books of Chinese herbal formulas and Kanpo formulas that are relied on at ITM are from the same publishers and are companion volumes to the Materia Medica guides mentioned above. In order from largest number of traditional formulas down, Thousand Formulas and Thousand Herbs, volume 2, Chinese Herbal Medicine: Formulas and Strategies, and Chinese-English Manual of Common-Used Prescriptions in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Commonly Used Chinese Herbal Formulas with Illustrations Companion Guide offers over 400 formulas that are mainly those used by Japanese Kanpo and Taiwanese practitioners. The older patent medicine guides are not very useful, due to the rapidly changing availability of the patents, changing and inaccurate labeling (relied upon by Western authors of the guides), and limited information about the formulation and uses. The new book by Fratkin resolves some of these problems, at least for now. Of the formula guides, only Chinese Herbal Medicine: Formulas and Strategies is listed as essential reading because of the presentation of a large number of formulas along with extensive descriptions for many of them.
Bensky D and Barolet R, Chinese Herbal Medicine: Formulas and Strategies, 1990 rev. ed., Eastland Press, Seattle, WA.
Dong Zhilin and Jiang Jingxian, 100 Famous and Effective Prescriptions of Ancient and Modern Times, 1990 China Ocean Press, Beijing. [OP]
Fratkin J, Chinese Herbal Patent Medicines: The Clinical Desk Reference, 2001 Shya Publications, Boulder, CO.
Geng Junying, et al., Practical Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology: Herbal Formulas 1991 New World Press, Beijing.
Hsu HY and Hsu CS, Commonly Used Chinese Herb Formulas Companion Handbook, 1997 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Hsu HY and Hsu CS, Commonly Used Chinese Herb Formulas with Illustrations, 1980 rev. ed., Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA. [OP; replaced by above title]
Huang Bingshan and Wang Yuxia, Thousand Formulas and Thousand Herbs of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 2, 1993 Heilongjiang Education Press, Harbin. [OP]
Ou Ming, Chinese-English Manual of Common-Used Prescriptions in Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1989 Joint Publishing Co., Hong Kong.
Naeser M, Outline Guide to Chinese Herbal Patent Medicines in Pill Form, 1990 Boston Chinese Medicine, Boston, MA.
Songnong (chief editor), Chinese Medicated Liquor Therapy, 1996 Beijing Science and Technology Press, Beijing.
Zhu CH, Clinical Handbook of Chinese Prepared Medicines, 1989 Paradigm Publications, Brookline, MA.
Chen Keji (editor), Chinese Patent Medicines, 1997 Hunan Science and Technology Press, Hunan, China.
Him-che Yeung, Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas, vol. 2: Formulas, 1985 Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles, CA.
Practitioners of Chinese herbal medicine are expected to be familiar with the Nei Jing (which has two component parts, Su Wen and Ling Shu) and with the Shang Han Lun (also having two parts, Shang Han Lun and Jin Gui Yao Lue); additionally, it is helpful to be aware of one or more works of famous physicians, such as Li Dongyuan (a.k.a. Li Gao). Translation of these ancient texts is no easy matter. Chinese writing tends to be quite succinct and readers (especially translators) often read into the text things that may or may not have been intended by the original author(s). Often, the book that is being translated has already been modified from the original by Chinese authors who not only copied the text, but made corrections, re-arrangements, and interpretations. Despite some concerns about the translations, one volume each of the Nei Jing components have been rated as essential reading, and one volume each of the Shang Han Lun have been rated as recommended reading. Most others are either not recommended or are suggested only for those undertaking advanced studies; the exception is the unique work by Zhang Xuchun translated by Paul Unschuld under the title Forgotten Traditions of Ancient Chinese Medicine, which, I believe, provides valuable insights into the thinking about traditional Chinese medicine and the forces that shape it, and has been rated as essential reading (made easier by having available an inexpensive paperback version).
Maoshing Ni, The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Medicine: A New Translation of the Neijing Suwen with Commentary, 1995 Shambhala, Boston, MA.
Unschuld PU, Forgotten Traditions of Ancient Chinese Medicine, 1990 Paradigm Publications, Brookline, MA.
Wu Jingnuan (translator), Ling Shu, or The Spiritual Pivot, 1993 Taoist Center, Washington, D.C.
Chen Ping (editor in chief), History and Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1999 Science Press, Beijing.
Hsu HY and Peacher WG (editors), Shang Han Lun: The Great Classic of Chinese Medicine, 1981 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Hsu HY and Wang SY (translators), Chin Kuei You Lueh, 1983 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Hsu HY and Wang SY, The Theory of Feverish Diseases and Its Clinical Applications, 1985 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Unschuld PU, Medicine in China: History of Pharmaceutics, 1986 University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
Unschuld PU, Medicine in China: A History of Ideas, 1985 University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
Yang Shouzhong and Li Jianyong (translators), Li Dongyuan's Treatise on the Spleen and Stomach, 1993 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
Zhu Ming, The Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor, 2001 Foreign Languages Press, Beijing.
Chace C and Zhang Tingliang, A Qin Bowei Anthology, 1997 Paradigm Publications, Brookline, MA
Nakayama S and Sivin N, (editors), Chinese Science: Explorations of an Ancient Tradition, 1973 MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. [OP]
Needham J, Science and Civilisation in China, vol. 2, 1974 Cambridge University Press, London.
Unschuld PU, Introductory Readings in Classical Chinese Medicine, 1988, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Holland.
Unschuld PU, Medicine in China: Nan-Ching, 1986 University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
Unschuld PU, Medicine in China: Historical Artifacts and Images, 2000 Prestel Verlag, Munich.
Wong KC and Wu LT, History of Chinese Medicine, 1973 AMS Press, Inc., New York. [OP]
Yang Shouzhong (translator), Extra Treatises based on Investigation and Inquiry (Gezhi Yulun), 1994 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
Yang Shouzhong (translator), The Heart Transmission of Medicine, 1997 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
Yang Shouzhong, Master Hua's Classic of the Central Viscera, 1993 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
Yang Shouzhong (translator), The Divine Farmer's Materia Medica, 1997 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
Yang Shouzhong and Chace C, The Systematic Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 1994 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
Zhang Zhongjing, Synopsis of Prescriptions of the Golden Chamber, 1987 New World Press, Beijing.
Zhang Zhongjing, Treatise on Febrile Diseases Caused by Cold with 500 Cases, 1993 New World Press, Beijing.
Sivin N, Chinese Alchemy: Preliminary Studies, 1968 Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. [OP]
Unschuld PU, Medical Ethics in Imperial China, 1979 University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. [OP]
Veith I, The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine, 1966 University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
Ware JR, Alchemy, Medicine, and Religion in the China of A.D. 320, 1966 Dover Publications, Inc., New York.
Yang Shouzhong, The Pulse Classic, 1997 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
It has become common practice in China for physicians to compile suggestions of treatments-herbal formulas-based on what is done in their own practice or what is generally done at a hospital facility. These books may be compiled by experienced physicians or by young practitioners who report on what they have learned from their teachers. Frequently, these books are laid out according to disorder (a favored pattern is to deal with disorders of the body from top down, then general metabolic disorders, and then deal with specialty areas, such as gynecology, pediatrics, and "surgical problems"). There is a brief description of the etiology and manifestation of the disease, traditional sub-categories (e.g., liver fire, spleen weakness, liver/kidney deficiency), and one or more recommended formulas. In some books, a case study is presented, and this case usually shows that the prescription given to the patient is not the same as the one that has just been recommended in the book, but, rather, a derivative or modification. Unfortunately, it is difficult to rate any of these as essential reading, as they rarely provide sufficient insight, but some are recommended because the information presented appears to be a reliable reflection of modern Chinese practice.
Shang Xianmin, et al., Practical Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology: Clinical Experiences, 1990 New World Press, Beijing.
Yan Wu and Warren Fischer, Practical Therapeutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1997 Paradigm Publications, Brookline, MA.
Zhang Enquin, Clinic of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1990 Publishing House of Shanghai College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai.
Fruehauf H and Dharmananda S, Treatment of Difficult and Recalcitrant Diseases with Chinese Herbs, 1997 ITM, Portland, OR.
Maciocia G, The Practice of Chinese Medicine, 1994 Churchill Livingstone, London.
Shao Nianfang, The Treatment of Knotty Diseases with Chinese Acupuncture and Chinese Herbal Medicine, 1990 Shandong Science and Technology Press, Jinan.
Wang Qi and Dong Zhilin, Modern Clinical Necessities for Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1990 China Ocean Press, Beijing.
Chen Songyu and Li Fei, A Clinical Guide to Chinese Herbs and Formulae, 1993 Churchill Livingstone, London.
He Shaoqi (editor), Handbook of Modern TCM Internal Medicine, 1991 Zhongyiyao Keji, Beijing.
Otsuka K, et al., Natural Healing with Chinese Herbs, 1982 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Otsuka K, 30 Years of Kanpo, 1984 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Takahide Kuwaki, Chinese Herbal Therapy, 1990 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Zhang Junwen, et al., Integrating Chinese and Western Medicine: A Handbook for Practitioners, 1993 Foreign Languages Press, Beijing.
Zhou Zhongying and Jin Huide, Clinical Manual of Chinese Herbal Medicine and Acupuncture, 1997 Churchill Livingstone, London.
The books included here fall into three broad categories: first, books that list each point (somewhat like the Materia Medica guides do for herbs) and present the relevant information; these books often also attach some information about treatment strategies; second, specialty books that deal with a particular type of therapy: ear acupuncture, scalp acupuncture, moxibustion, etc.; third, is books that are organized according to treatment of diseases (in these, it is assumed that the acupuncturist already knows about the individual points and the various treatment methods). For a book to be recommended, it must present both reliable standard and extensive information; there are plenty of books available that offer information that does not tie in to any standard theories or practices (the book is often highly personal) and several that provide too little detail to be of much use other than as a quick reminder for those who have learned the field very well (in which case, the book is probably not needed). Since acupuncture is usually practiced only after extensive training, the value of these books is to provide additional insights that might have been missed or forgotten.
Ellis A, Wiseman N, and Boss K, Fundamentals of Chinese Acupuncture, 1988 Paradigm Publications, Brookline, MA.
Qiu Maoliang (Man. ed.), Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 1993 Churchill Livingstone, London.
Chen Ken and Cui Yonquiang, Handbook to Chinese Auricular Therapy, 1990 Foreign Language Press, Beijing.
Cheng Xinnong (chief editor), Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 1987 Foreign Languages Press, Beijing.
Deadman P and Mazin AK, A Manual of Acupuncture, 1998 Journal of Chinese Medicine Publications, East Sussex, England.
Ellis A, Wiseman N, and Boss K, Grasping the Wind, 1989 Paradigm Publications, Brookline, MA.
Mingching Zhu, Zhu's Scalp Acupuncture, 1992 Eight Dragons Publishing, Hong Kong.
O'Connor J and Bensky D (translators), Acupuncture: A Comprehensive Text, 1981, Eastland Press, Seattle, WA.
Yu Huichan and Han Furu, Golden Needle Wang Leting, 1996 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
Zhang Enquin (editor in chief), Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 1990 Publishing House of Shanghai College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai.
Zhang Ru and Dong Zhilin, Modern Clinical Necessities for Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 1990 China Ocean Press, Beijing.
Kong Yaoqi, Ren Xingsheng, and Lu Shoukang, The Acupuncture Treatment for Parlaysis, 1996 Science Press, Beijing.
Ross J, Acupuncture Point Combinations: The Key to Clinical Success, 1995 Churchill Livingstone, London.
Zhang Ruifu, Wu Xifen, and Wang NS, Illustrated Dictionary of Chinese Acupuncture, 1986 Sheep's Publication, U.S.A., San Francisco, CA.
Mingching Zhu, A Handbook for Treatment of Acute Syndromes by Using Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 1992 Eight Dragons Publishing, Hong Kong.
Beijing College of TCM, et al., Essentials of Chinese Acupuncture, 1980 Foreign Language Press, Beijing.
Cheng Danan, Acupuncture and Moxibustion Formulas and Treatments, 1996 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
Chinese Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, An Outline of Chinese Acupuncture, 1975 Foreign Languages Press, Beijing. [OP]
Guillaume G and Chieu M, Rheumatology in Chinese Medicine, 1996 Eastland Press, Seattle, WA.
Johns R, The Art of Acupuncture Techniques, 1996 North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, CA.
Lee, M, Insights of a Senior Acupuncturist, 1992 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
Zhang Denbu, Acupuncture Cases from China, 1994 Churchill Livingstone, London.
Zhong Meiquan, The Chinese Plum-Blossom Needle Therapy, 1984 The People's Medical Publishing House, Beijing.
In China, the border between foods and medicines is indefinite. The principles of therapy governing herbs are the same as those governing foods. Therefore, the study of food from the Chinese perspective is valuable to those who prescribe herbs. The books listed here have very diverse nature; for example, The Food of China and Food in Chinese Culture are academic studies of the historical introduction and reliance on various foods with only passing mention of their medicinal value, while most of the other books are about using the foods for specific healing actions.
Chang Chaoliang, et al., Vegetables as Medicine, 1989 The Ram's Skull Press, Kuranda, Australia. [OP]
Dai Yinfang and Liu Chengjun, Fruit as Medicine, 1986 The Ram's Skull Press, Kuranda, Australia. [OP]
Lu HC, Chinese System of Food Cures, 1986 Sterling Publishing Co. Inc., New York.
Ni MS, The Tao of Nutrition, 1987 College of Tao & Traditional Chinese Healing, Los Angeles, CA.
Anderson EN, The Food of China, 1988 Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
Chang KC, Food in Chinese Culture, 1977 Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
Zhang Enquin (ed. in chief), Chinese Medicated Diet, 1988 Publishing House of Shanghai College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai.
Maciocia G, The Foundations of Chinese Medicine, 1989, Churchill Livingstone, London.
Chace C and Zhang Tingliang, A Qin Bowei Anthology, 1997 Paradigm Publications, Brookline, MA.
Chen Zelin and Chen Meifang, A Comprehensive Guide to Chinese Herbal Medicine, 1992 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Fruehauf H, Five Organ Networks of Chinese Medicine, 1998 ITM, Portland, OR.
Katpchuk TJ, The Web That Has No Weaver: Understanding Chinese Medicine, 1983 St. Martins Press, New York.
State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Advanced Textbook on Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, (4 vol.) 1995-6 New World Press, Beijing.
Wang Qi and Dong Zhi Lin, New Practical Syndrome Differentiation of T.C.M., 1992 China Ocean Press, Beijing. [OP]
Xu Xiangcai (chief editor), The English-Chinese Encyclopedia of Practical Traditional Chinese Medicine, (21 vols.) 1989 Higher Education Press, Beijing.
Chen Zelin and Chen Meifang, The Essence and Scientific Background of Tongue Diagnosis, 1989 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Hsu HY and Peacher WG, Chen's History of Chinese Medical Science, 1978 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Kleinman A, Kunstadter P, et al., Culture and Healing in Asian Societies, 1978 Schenkman Publishing Company, Cambridge, MA.
Larre C and de la Vallée ER, Rooted in Spirit: The Heart of Chinese Medicine, 1995 Station Hill Press, Barrytown, NY.
Larre C, Schatz J, and de la Vallée ER, Survey of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1986 Traditional Acupuncture Institute, Columbia, MD.
Leslie C (editor), Asian Medical Systems, 1976 University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
Sionneau P, Dui Yao: The Art of Combining Chinese Medicinals, 1997 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
Hillier SM and Jewell JA, Health Care and Traditional Medicine in China 1800-1982, 1983 Routledge and Kegan Paul, London. [OP]
Hsu HY, How to Treat Yourself with Chinese Herbs, 1980 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Hyatt R, Healing with Chinese Herbs, 1990 Healing Arts Press, Rochester, VT.
Toyohiko Kikutani, Combined Use of Western Therapies and Chinese Medicine, 1987 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Liu Zhengcai, The Mystery of Longevity, 1990 Foreign Language Press, Beijing.
Ross J, Zang Fu: The Organ Systems of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1989 Churchill Livingstone, London.
Sivin N, Traditional Medicine in Contemporary China, 1987 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Unschuld PU, Chinese Medicine, 1998 Paradigm Publications, Brookline, MA.
Wiseman N, and Ellis A, Fundamentals of Chinese Medicine, 1985 Paradigm Pub., Brookline, MA.
Chemical, pharmacological, and clinical evaluation of herbs has been a major thrust of work in China (and other Asian countries, notably Japan) for fifty years. Additionally, during the past twenty years or so, Western researchers have taken up this subject. A difficulty with relying on books for this type of information is the rapidity with which they become outdated. The quality and type of research being conducted has improved greatly in recent years; this makes reliance on earlier and poorer quality research less useful. Still, while some areas of research are highly active, others are quite slow to show progress, so compilations of research in one place, as in some of these books, is a handy way to access it. Many of these books are already out of print, because research-oriented texts are usually produced in a single small print run. For practitioners who prescribe the herbs, these books will generally prove to be advanced reading; they are especially helpful to those who teach on the subject of research or who plan to conduct research. More up to date information is obtained from journals, though there are very few of them presenting full research reports in English. Unlike medical journals, these books always contain abstracted information and it is sometimes difficult to evaluate the validity and applicability of the reported findings.
Zhu YP, Chinese Materia Medica: Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Applications, 1998 Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam.
Chang HM and But PPH (editors), Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Materia Medica, (2 vols.), 1986 World Scientific, Singapore. [OP; replaced by above title]
Dong Zhilin and Yu Shufang, Modern Study and Application of Materia Medica, 1990 China Ocean Press, Beijing. [OP]
Hsu HY, Chen YP, and Hong Ming, The Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs, 1982, Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Chang HM, et al., Advances in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research, 1985 World Scientific, Singapore. [OP]
Ko R and Au A, 1997-1998 Compendium of Asian Patent Medicines, 1998 California Department of Health Services, Sacramento, CA.
Tang W and Eisenbrand G, Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin, 1992 Springer-Verlag, Berlin. [OP]
Ying Jianzhe, Mao Xiadan, et al., Icones of Medicinal Fungi from China, 1987 Science Press, Beijing. [OP]
Zhou Jinhuang, et al., Recent Advances in Chinese Herbal Drugs-Actions and Uses, 1991 Science Press, Beijing. [OP]
Zhu Liangfeng, Li Yonghua, et al., Aromatic Plants and Essential Constituents, 1993 Hai Feng Publishing; Peace Book Company, Hong Kong.
Individuals seeking treatment by Chinese medicine often prefer to have a specialist trained in their particular area of concern. In the West, there is little specialization, but the need for detailed knowledge in several fields remains. Examples of specializations that appear in the literature are dermatology, rheumatology, ophthalmology, gynecology, and pediatrics. These books usually have the same basic characteristics as those described above under the heading "Clinical Experience." Cancer treatment with herbs is a major area of clinical practice in China and is of growing interest to Westerners. There has been a substantial change in emphasis in China, from use of herbs to treat cancer to use of herbs as an adjunct to cancer therapies. The book Treating Cancer with Chinese Herbs is an example of one reporting on treatments with herbs alone, while Cancer Treatment with Fu Zheng Pei Ben Principle is an example of one that is limited to addressing adverse effects of modern cancer therapies. Some of these books are guides to the individual herbs that may be used for either of these purposes, such as Anticancer Medicinal Herbs. To be recommended reading, the book must present extensive information about the herbs or substantial details about treatment strategies; due to the fact that these books involve specialization, none have been rated as essential reading.
Chang Minyi, Anticancer Medicinal Herbs, 1992 Hunan Science and Technology Publishing House, Changsha.
Pan Mingji, Cancer Treatment with Fu Zheng Pei Ben Principle, 1992 Fujian Science and Technology Publishing House, Fujian. [OP]
Hsu HY, Treating Cancer with Chinese Herbs, 1990 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Jia Kun, Prevention and Treatment of Carcinoma in Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1985 The Commercial Press, Hong Kong.
Ou Ming, et al., An Illustrated Guide to Antineoplastic Chinese Herbal Medicine, 1990 The Commercial Press, Hong Kong.
Shi Lanling and Shi Peiquan, Experience in Treating Carcinomas with Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1992 Shandong Science and Technology Press, Shandong.
Binyan Sun, Cancer Treatment and Prevention, 1991 Offete Enterprises, San Mateo, CA.
Lien E and Wen L, Structure Activity Relationship Analysis of Chinese Anti-Cancer Drugs and Related Plants, 1985 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
Pan Mingji, How to Discover Cancer Through Self-Examination, 1992 Fujian Science and Technology Publishing House, Fujian.
Sun Chiyuan, A Probing into the Treatment of Leukemia with Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1990 Hai Feng Publishing Company, Hong Kong.
Zhang Daizhao, The Treatment of Cancer by Integrated Chinese-Western Medicine, 1989 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
Li Lin, Practical Traditional Chinese Dermatology, 1995 Hai Feng Publishing Company, Hong Kong. [RR]
Liang Jianhui, A Handbook of Traditional Chinese Dermatology, 1988 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO. [AR]
Shen Dehui, Wu Xiufen, and Wang N, Manual of Dermatology in Chinese Medicine, 1995 Eastland Press, Seattle, WA. [NR]
Xu Xiangcai (chief editor), The English-Chinese Encyclopedia of Practical Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 16: Dermatology, 1991 Higher Education Press, Beijing. [RR]
Liu Zhengcai, The Mystery of Longevity, 1990 Foreign Languages Press, Beijing. [AR]
Yan Dexin, Aging and Blood Stasis: A New TCM Approach to Geriatrics, 1995 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO. [AR]
Hou Jinglun, et al. (editors), Traditional Chinese Treatment of Infectious Diseases, 1997 Academy Press, Beijing. [AR]
Wen JM and Seifert G, Warm Disease Theory, 2000 Paradigm Publications, Brookline, MA. [RR]
Cao Jiming, Su Xinming, and Cao Junqi (editors), Essentials of Traditional Chinese Pediatrics, 1990 Foreign Language Press, Beijing. [RR]
Xu Xiangcai (chief editor), The English-Chinese Encyclopedia of Practical Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 13: Pediatrics, 1991 Higher Education Press, Beijing. [RR]
Xiao Shuqin, Zhang Xiwen, et al., Pediatric Bronchitis: Its TCM Cause, Diagnosis, and Treatment, 1991 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO. [AR]
Furth C, A Flourishing Yin: Gender in China's Medical History, 960-1665, 1999 University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. [AR]
Lin A, A Handbook of TCM Urology & Male Sexual Dysfunction, 1992 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO. [NR]
Shibata Y and Wu J, Kampo Treatment for Climacteric Disorders, 1997 Paradigm Publications, Brookline, MA. [AR]
Xu Xiangcai (chief editor), The English-Chinese Encyclopedia of Practical Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 12: Gynecology, 1990 Higher Education Press, Beijing. [RR]
Cheung CS, Lai YK, and Kaw UA, Mental Dysfunction as Treated by Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1981 Traditional Chinese Medicine Publisher, San Francisco, CA. [OP]
Xu Xiangcai (chief editor), The English-Chinese Encyclopedia of Practical Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 17: Ophthalmology, 1994 Higher Education Press, Beijing. [RR]
Kovacs J and Unschuld PU, Essential Subtleties on the Silver Sea, 1998 University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. [AR]
Xu Xiangcai (chief editor), The English-Chinese Encyclopedia of Practical Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 14: Orthopedics and Traumatology, 1992 Higher Education Press, Beijing. [RR]
Vangermeersch C, and Sun Peilin, Bi-Syndromes, 1994 SATAS, Belgium. [AR]
This section includes a wide range of books about Chinese characters, as well as some books that are specifically about Chinese medicine. Although practitioners of Chinese medicine can rely on dictionaries that translate terms from Chinese to English and English to Chinese, a knowledge of the basic Chinese characters may aid in deeper understanding of the concepts.
Anonymous, Learner's Chinese-English Dictionary, 5th ed., 1984 Nanyang Siang Pau and Umum Publisher, Singapore.
Lindqvist C, China: Empire of Living Symbols, 1991 Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., NY.
Wiseman N, English-Chinese, Chinese-English Dictionary of Chinese Medicine, 1995 Foreign Languages Press, Beijing.
Fazzioli E, Chinese Calligraphy: From Pictograph to Ideogram: The History of 214 Essential Chinese/Japanese Characters, 1986 Abbeville Press, NY.
Li Leyi, Tracing The Roots of Chinese Characters: 500 Cases, 1993 Beijing Language and Culture University Press, Beijing.
Liao SJ (editor), Chinese-English Terminology of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1981 Hunan Science and Technology Press, Hunan.
Tan Huaypeng, Fun with Chinese Characters: The Straits Times Collection (3 volumes), 1980-1983 Federal Publications, Hong Kong.
Wang Hongyuan, The Origins of Chinese Characters, 1993 Sinolingua, Beijing.
Wieger L, Chinese Characters: Their Origin, Etymology, History, Classification, and Signification, 1965 Dover Publications, NY.
Wilder GD and Ingram JH, Analysis of Chinese Characters, 1974 Dover Publications, NY.
Wiseman N, and Boss K, Glossary of Chinese Medical Terms and Acupuncture Points, 1990 Paradigm Publications, Brookline, MA.
Wiseman N and Ye Feng, A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine, 1998 Paradigm Publications, Brookline, MA.
Xie Zhufan and Huang Xiokai (editors), Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1984 Commercial Press, Hong Kong.
Liu F and Lui Yanmau, Chinese Medical Terminology, 1980 The Commercial Press, Ltd., Hong Kong.
Unschuld PU, Approaches to Traditional Chinese Medical Literature, 1989 Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Holland.
Tibetan medicine is an integration of four traditions: Ayurvedic medicine and Buddhism from India, the pre-Buddhist shamanism that existed in Tibet, and Chinese medicine. Many of these books are difficult to obtain and provide limited information. However, for those who wish to know Tibetan medicine, a study of several of the books, especially those listed here as recommended reading, will provide a good overview.
Clifford T, Tibetan Buddhist Medicine and Psychiatry: The Diamond Healing, 1984 Samuel Weiser, Inc., York Beach, ME.
Norbu D, An Introduction to Tibetan Medicine, 1976 Tibetan Review, New Delhi.
Rapgay L, et al., Mind and Mental Health in Tibetan Medicine, 1988 Potala Publications, New York.
Tsarong TJ, Fundamentals of Tibetan Medicine, 1981 Tibetan Medical Centre, Dharamsala, India.
Baker IA, The Tibetan Art of Healing, 1997 Thames and Hudson, London.
Clark B, The Quintessence Tantras of Tibetan Medicine, 1995 Snow Lion Publications, Ithica, NY.
Dash VB, Tibetan Medicine, with Special Reference to Yoga Sataka, 1985 Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, New Delhi.
Dhönden Y, The Ambrosia Heart Tantra, 1977 Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, New Delhi.
Rapgay L, The Art of Tibetan Medical Urinalysis, 1986 Tibetan Holistic Medical Series, Dharamsala, India.
Rechung Rinpoche, Tibetan Medicine, 1976 University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
Tsarong TJ, Handbook of Traditional Tibetan Drugs, 1986 Tibetan Medical Publications, West Bengal, India.
Dhönden Y and Kelsang J, Tibetan Medicine (Series #6), 1983 Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, New Delhi.
Kilty G, Tibetan Medicine (Series No. 7), 1984 Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, New Delhi.
Molvray M, Tibetan Medicine (Series No. 11), 1988 Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, New Delhi.
Lobsang Rapgay, Tibetan Medicine (Series No. 3), 1981 Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, New Delhi.
Vaidya Bhagwan Dash, Formulary of Tibetan Medicine, 1988 Classics India Publication, Delhi.
Finckh E, Studies in Tibetan Medicine, 1988 Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca, NY.
Lobsang Dolma Khangkar, Lectures on Tibetan Medicine, 1986 Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, New Delhi.
Ayurvedic medicine differs markedly from Chinese medicine, but there are some areas of overlap: both systems were codified around the same time in civilizations at similar stages of development; both systems have many herbs in common; and both systems have strong emphasis on the value of food as medicine, the use of traditional formulations, and the application of physical exercises (e.g., yoga in India and taiji in China), and physical therapies (e.g., massage in India and acupuncture in China). A problem with Ayurvedic medicine that also plagues Chinese medicine, is that there are so many books produced that are not very true to the tradition. However, unlike Chinese medicine, which has a large and growing profession in the West, Ayurveda is mostly taught to laypersons outside of India, so the demand for rigorous training is less. This has some effect on the quality of publications. Only two books have been deemed essential reading: Ayurveda: Life, Health, Longevity (for background on the entire field of Ayurvedic medicine) and the Indian Materia Medica, which has a good overview of the individual herbs from the traditional viewpoint (it was written more than 75 years ago, though republished more recently), with mention of many valued herb combinations.
Nadkarni KM, Indian Materia Medica, (2 vol.) 1976 Popular Prakashan Put. Ltd., Bombay.
Svoboda R, Ayurveda: Life, Health, and Longevity, 1992 Penguin Books, India, New Delhi.
Harish Johari, Ayurvedic Massage, 1996 Healing Arts Press, Rochester, VT.
Verma V, Ayurveda: A Way of Life, 1985 Samuel Weiser, Inc., York Beach, ME.
Kaviratna AC and Sharma P (translators), Caraka-Samhita, Second Revised Edition [5 volumes], 1996 Indian Books Centre, Delhi.
Kutumbiah P, Ancient Indian Medicine, 1962 Orient Longman Ltd., Bombay. [OP]
Svoboda R, Prakruti: Your Ayurvedic Constitution, 1989 Geocom, Albuquerque, NM.
Svoboda R and Lade A, Tao and Dharma: Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda, 1995 The Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, WI.
Zysk K, Asceticism and Healing in Ancient India, 1991 Oxford University Press, New York.
Gerson S, Ayurveda: The Ancient Indian Healing Art, 1993 Barnes and Noble Books, New York.
Lad V, Ayurveda: The Science of Self-Healing, 1985 Lotus Press, Santa Fe, NM.
Ros F, The Lost Secrets of Ayurvedic Acupuncture, 1994 The Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, WI.
Svoboda R, The Hidden Secret of Ayurveda, 1994 The Ayurvedic Press, Albuquerque, NM.
Tiwari M, Ayurveda: A Life of Balance, 1995 Healing Arts Press, Rochester, VT.
When patients present their Western diagnosis, it is important for the practitioner of traditional medicine to understand it, be able to discuss the matter within certain limits, and, as may be necessary, explain the traditional treatment in relation to the Western diagnosis and treatment. Western medicine includes general understanding of diagnosis and treatment, as presented in guides and encyclopedias, and reference to specific treatment methods, including drugs, nutritional supplements, and herbs. Books that have been found valuable for ITM presentation of information about disorders are listed here.
Berkow R (editor in chief), The Merck Manual (17th ed.), 1997 Merck & Co., Rahway, NJ.
Boik J, Natural Compounds in Cancer Therapy, 2001 Oregon Medical Press, Princeton, MN.
Clayman CB (editor), AMA Encyclopedia of Medicine, 1989 Random House, New York.
Grieve M, A Modern Herbal, 1971 Dover Publications, New York.
Murray M and Pizzorno J, Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, 1990 Prima Publishing, Rocklin, CA.
Rybacki JJ and Long JW, The Essential Guide to Prescription Drugs, 1997 HarperPerennial, New York.
Werbach M, Foundations of Nutritional Medicine, 1997 Third Line Press, Tarzana, CA
Werbach M, Healing Through Nutrition, 1993 HarperCollins, New York.
Werbach M, Nutritional Influences on Illness, Second Edition 1993 Third Line Press, Tarzana, CA.
Werbach M, Nutritional Influences on Mental Illness, Second Edition 1999 Third Line Press, Tarzana, CA.
Blumental M, et al. The Complete German Commission E Monographs, 1998 American Botanical Council, Austin, TX.
Blumental M, Goldberg A, and Brinckman J, Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs, 2000 American Botanical Council, Austin, TX.
Weiss RF and Volker F, Herbal Medicine, 2000 Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.
Cody V, Middleton Jr., E, and Harborne JB (editors), Plant Flavonoids in Biology and Medicine, 1987 Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York.
Goth A, Medical Pharmacology, 1984 C.V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, MO.
Leake CD, An Historical Account of Pharmacology to the Twentieth Century, 1975 Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.
Morton JF, Major Medicinal Plants: Botany, Culture, and Uses, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.
Tyler VE, Brady LR, and Robbers JE, Pharmacognosy, 1976 Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
Publishing a journal is an arduous task, and it is especially difficult when the number of subscribers is small (most journals of Chinese medicine number their subscribers only in the hundreds) and when the number of excellent reports is also small (few practitioners of Chinese medicine have received training that would lead to production of high quality reports). As a result, there are relatively few journals, and most of them have a short publication life. Following are the journals that have been received at ITM, either by subscription or donation. Though none are of such high quality as to be deemed essential reading, practitioners of Chinese medicine ought to have at least two research oriented journals, and (of the ones still available for subscription) the ones used most at ITM are Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the International Journal of Oriental Medicine, and the Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine.
Bulletin of the Oriental Healing Arts Institute (published 1976-1988; back issues available from Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA). [OP]
International Journal of Oriental Medicine (published since 1989; Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA).
Journal of the American College of Traditional Chinese Medicine (published 1982-1989; back issues available from the American College of TCM, San Francisco, CA). [OP]
The Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (published since 1981; 18 Beixincang, Dongzhimen Nei, Beijing 100700).
Abstracts of Chinese Medicine (published 1987-1996; Medicinal Materials Research Center, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong; back issues not available). [OP]
Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine (Beijing; English language publication since 1995. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine Press: 1 Caochang, Xiyuan, Beijing 100091 China).
European Journal of Oriental Medicine (179 Gloucester Place, London NW11 6DX, England).
American Journal of Chinese Medicine (published since 1974; P.O. Box 555, Garden City, New York 11530).
The Journal of Chinese Medicine (published since 1981; 22 Cromwell Road, Hove, Sussex BN3 3EB, England).
Oriental Medicine (published since 1991; 3723 N. Southport, Chicago, IL).
Although not devoted to Chinese medicine or even to natural medicine, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) is strongly recommended for practitioners of Chinese medicine so that the latest advances in knowledge of medicine can be viewed. JAMA has recently published several articles on alternative medicine and provided clinical study reports about nutritional supplements and herbs.
Herbalgram (American Botanical Council, P.O.Box 201660 Austin, TX 78720).
Journal of the American Medical Association (515 N State St., Chicago, IL 60610).
Journal of Naturopathic Medicine (Journal Management Group, Ten Morgan Ave., Norwalk, CT 06851).
Protocol Journal of Botanical Medicine (published 1995-1997; P.O.Box 108, Harvard, MA 01451). [OP]
Alternative & Complimentary Therapies (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 2 Madison Ave., Larchmont, NY 10538).
Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 2 Madison Ave., Larchmont, NY 10538).