Quick Reference to Herb Names

This table helps to better identify the Chinese herbal materials mentioned in the text. The common names that are used throughout the text are those that have been utilized by ITM and the Oriental Healing Arts Institute for the past thirty years, with a few minor changes. The pinyin terms will help those who are not familiar with the common names to refer to most Chinese literature. It is a frequent practice in China to use many different herbs as a source of the same basic item; these herbs have the same therapeutic action, from the traditional viewpoint. This cross-reference index lists a single, representative botanical source for the item. The plant part used has been indicated. There is some confusion in the literature about the designation of fruits and seeds, especially since some plants produce a structure that is essentially both. There is also some confusion about whether just the tops or the whole plant is used for some weedy herbs. It may depend on the collection techniques and post-collection cleaning as to what is actually obtained. Not all the materials listed here are derived from plants. For animals, the scientific name is given and has the same structure as the botanical names; for minerals, a common name or a chemical description may be given. The category listing refers to the Materia Medica section, and is mainly that used in Oriental Materia Medica. The Materia Medica category does not necessarily define the primary current use of the herb; it does, however, indicate a major application of the herb.

Herb Name Pinyin Scientific Name Part Category
Achyranthes niuxi Achyranthes bidentata root vitalize blood
Aconite fuzi Aconitum charmichaeli root dispel chill
Acorus shichangpu Acorus gramineus rhizome open orifices
Albizzia hehuanpi Albizzia julibrissin bark nourishing sedative
Albizzia flower hehuanhua Albizzia julibrissin flower nourishing sedative
Alisma zexie Alisma aquatica- plantago rhizome remove moisture
Alpinia yizhiren Alpinia oxyphylla fruit tonify yang
Altaica jiujiechangpu Anemone altaica rhizome open orifices
Anemarrhena zhimu Anemarrhena aspholoides rhizome purge fire
Angelica baizhi Angelica dahurica root dispel wind-chill
Antler gelatin lujiaojiao Cervus nippon gelatin nourish blood
Apricot seed xingren Prunus armeniaca kernel relieve cough
Areca peel dafupi Areca catechu peel regulate qi
Arisaema tiannanxing Arisaema consanguineum rhizome resolve cold phlegm
Arisaema, bile dannanxing Arisaema consanguineum rhizome resolve cold phlegm
Asparagus tianmendong Asparagus cochinchinensis root nourish yin
Astragalus huangqi Astragalus membranaceous root tonify qi
Atractylodes baizhu Atractylodes macrocephalla rhizome tonify qi
Atractylodes, red cangzhu Atractylodes lancea rhizome fragrant, resolve damp
Aurantium juhong Citrus reticulata peel regulate qi
Bamboo sap tianzhuhuang Phyllostachys nigra sap resolve hot phlegm
Biota baiziren Biota orientalis seed nourishing sedative
Blue citrus qingpi Citrus nobilis fruit regulate qi
Borneol longnao; bingpian Dryobalanops aromatica resin open orifices
Bupleurum chaihu Bupleurum chinense root dispel wind-heat
Cardamon Sharen Amomum villosum seeds fragrant resolve damp
Carthamus Honghua Carthamus tinctorius flower vitalize blood
Cassia seed juemingzi Cassia obtusifolia seed clear heat, clarify vision
Chih-ko zhike, zhiqiao Citrus aurantium fruit regulate qi
Chih-shih zhishi Citrus aurantium unripe fruit regulate qi
Chin-chiu qinjiao Gentiana macrophylla root dispel wind-damp
Ching-hao qinghao Aremisia apiacea tops clear summer heat
Chrysanthemum juhua Chrysanthemum morifolium flower dispel wind-heat
Cimicifuga shengma Cimicifuga heracleifolia rhizome dispel wind-heat
Cinnamon bark rougui Cinnamomum cassia bark dispel chill
Cinnamon twig guizhi Cinnamomum cassia twig dispel wind-chill
Cistanche roucongrong Cistanche salsa top tonify yang
Citrus chenpi Citrus reticulata rind regulate qi
Cnidium chuanxiong Ligusticum walichii rhizome vitalize blood
Codonopsis dangshen Codonopsis pilosula root tonify qi
Coix yiyiren Coix lachryma-jobi seed remove moisture
Coptis huanglian Coptis chinensis rhizome clear heat, dry damp
Cordyceps dongchongxiacao Cordyceps sinensis mycelium tonify yang
Cornus shanzhuyu Cornus officinalis fruit astringent
Corydalis yanhusuo Corydalis bulbosa tuber vitalize blood
Crataegus shanzha Crataegus cuneata fruit digestant
Curculigo xianmao Curculigo orchiodes rhizome tonify yang
Curcuma yujin Curcuma aromatica tuber vitalize blood
Cuscuta tusizi Cuscuta chinensis seed tonify yang
Cyathula chuanniuxi Cyathula capitata root vitalize blood
Cyperus xiangfuzi Cyperus rotundus rhizome regulate qi
Deer antler lurong Cervus Nippon antler tonify yang
Dioscorea shanyao Dioscorea batatas rhizome tonify qi
Dipsacus xuduan Dipsacus asper root tonify yang
Dragon bone longgu Fossil bone whole sedative
Dragon tooth longchi Fossil bone whole sedative
Drynaria gusuibu Drynaria fortunei rhizome tonify yang
Earthworm dilong Pheretima asiatica whole extinguish wind
Eclipta hanliancao Eclipta prostrata top nourish yin
Epimedium yinyanghuo Epimedium sagittatum leaf tonify yang
Eucommia duzhong Eucommia ulmoides bark tonify yang
Eupolyphaga zhechong Eupolyphaga sinensis whole vitalize blood
Euryale qianshi Euryale ferox seed astringent
Evodia wuzhuyu Evodia rutaecarpa fruit dispel chill
Forsythia lianqiao Forsythia suspensa fruit clean toxin
Frankincense ruxiang Boswellia carterii gum vitalize blood
Fritillaria zhebeimu Fritillaria thunbergii bulb resolve hot phlegm
Fu-shen fushen Poria cocos/Pinus sp. root/fungus sedative
Gardenia zhizi or shanzhizi Gardenia jasminoides fruit purge fire
Gastrodia tianma Gastrodia elata tuber extinguish wind
Gastrodia mushroom mihuanjun Armillaria mellea whole extinguish wind
Gelatin ejiao Equus asinus skin extract tonify blood
Gentiana longdancao Gentiana scabra root clear heat, dry damp
Ginger (dry) ganjiang Zingiberis officinale rhizome dispel chill
Ginger (fresh) shengjiang Zingiberis officinale rhizome dispel wind-chill
Ginseng renshen Panax ginseng root tonify qi
Gleditsia (spine) zaojiaoci Gleditsia officinalis spine resolve cold phlegm
Haematite daizheshi Haematite mineral sedative
Haliotis shijueming Haliotis diversicolor shell extinguish wind
Ho-shou-wu heshouwu Polygonum multiflorum root tonify blood
Hoelen fuling Poria cocos whole remove moisture
Jujube dazao or hongzao Zizyphus jujuba fruit tonify qi
Lapis Mengshi Lapis mineral resolve hot phlegm
Licorice Gancao Glycyrrhiza uralensis root tonify qi
Ligustrum Nüzhenzi Ligustrum lucidum fruit nourish yin
Lily baihe Lily brownii bulb nourish yin
Lindera wuyao Lindera strychnifolia root regulate qi
Longan longyanrou Euphoria longana aril (fruit) tonify blood
Lonicera jinyinhua Lonicera japonica flower clean toxin
Lotus seed lianzi Nelumbo nucifera seed astringent
Lotus stamen lianxu Nelumbo nucifera stamen astringent
Lycium bark digupi Lycium barbarum root bark purge deficiency fire
Lycium (fruit) gouqizi Lycium barbarum fruit tonify blood
Magnetite cishi Magnetite mineral sedative
Magnolia bark houpo Magnolia obovata bark fragrant, resolve damp
Malt maiya Hordeum vulgare sprout digestant
Melia chuanlianzi Melia toosendan fruit regulate qi
Mentha bohe Mentha arvensis tops dispel wind-heat
Millettia jixueteng Spatholobus suberectus stem vitalize blood
Morinda bajitian Morinda officinalis root tonify yang
Morus (bark) sangbaipi Morus alba root bark relieve cough
Mother of pearl zhenzhumu Pinctada margaritifera shell sedative
Moutan mudanpi Paeonia moutan root bark clear heat, cool blood
Mume wumei Prunus mume fruit astringent
Myrrh moyao Commiphora sp. resin vitalize blood
Ophiopogon maimendong Ophiopogon japonicus tuber tonify yin
Oyster shell muli Ostrea gigas shell sedative
Peony (white) baishao Paeonia lactiflora root nourish blood
Perilla leaf zisuye Perilla frutescens leaf dispel wind-chill
Persica taoren Prunus persica kernel vitalize blood
Phellodendron huangbai Phellodendron amurense bark clear heat, dry damp
Pinellia banxia Typhonium flagelliforme tuber resolve cold phlegm
Plantago seed cheqianzi Plantago asiatica seed remove moisture
Platycodon jiegeng Platycodon grandiflorum root resolve cold phlegm
Polygala yuanzhi Polygala tenuifolia root nourishing sedative
Polygonatum huangjing Polygonatum sibericum rhizome tonify qi
Polygonum stem yejiaoteng Polygonum multiflorum stem nourishing sedative
Prunella xiakucao Prunella vulgaris top purge fire
Psoralea buguzhi Psoralea corylifolia seed tonify yang
Pseudostellaria taizishen Pseudostellaria heterophylla root tonify qi
Pteropus wulingzhi Pteropus pselaphon excretion vitalize blood
Pueraria gegen Pueraria lobata root dispel wind-heat
Red peony chishao Paeonia lactiflora root vitalize blood
Rehmannia shu dihuang Rehmannia glutinosa root tonify blood
Rehmannia (raw) sheng dihuang Rehmannia glutinosa root clear heat, cool blood
Rhubarb dahuang Rheum palmatum rhizome purgative
Salvia danshen Salvia miltiorrhiza root vitalize blood
San-chi sanqi Panax notoginseng root regulate blood
Sargassum haizao Sargassum fuisforme whole resolve hot phlegm
Saussurea muxiang Jurinea souliei root regulate qi
Schizandra wuweizi Schizandra chinensis fruit astringent
Scute huangqin Scutellaria baicalensis root clear heat, dry damp
Scrophularia xuanshen Scrophularia ningpoensis root clear heat, cool blood
Shen-chu shenqu Artemisia annua and others whole digestant
Siler fangfeng Ledebouriella seseloides root dispel wind-chill
Silkworm jiangcan Bombyx mori/Batrytis sp. whole extinguish wind
Sinapis baijiezi Brassica hirta seed resolve cold phlegm
Sophora kushen Sophora angustifolia root clear heat, dry damp
Sparganium sanleng Sparganium stoloniferum rhizome vitalize blood
Succinum hupo Succinum (fossil resin) whole sedative
Talc huashi Talcum whole remove moisture
Tang-kuei danggui Angelica sinensis root nourish blood
Tortoise shell guiban Chinemys reevesii shell nourish yin
Tribulus baijili Tribulus terrestris baijili extinguish wind
Trichosanthes fruit gualou Trichosanthes kirilowii fruit resolve hot phlegm
Turmeric jianghuang Curcuma longa rhizome vitalize blood
Turtle shell biejia Amyda sinensis shell nourish yin
Typha (bulrush) puhuang Typha latifolia pollen hemostatic
Uncaria gouteng Uncaria rynchophylla stem extinguish wind
Vitex manjingzi Vitex rotundifolia fruit dispel wind-heat
Zedoaria ezhu Curcuma zedoaria rhizome vitalize blood
Zizyphus suanzaoren Zizyphus spinosa seed nourishing sedative